U.S. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan recently published a disturbing essay entitled
"Defining Deviancy Down." In the Nov 22 issue of The New Republic, Commentator
Charles Krauthammer writes that "Moynihan's powerful point is that with the moral
deregulation of the 1960s, we have had an explosion of deviancy in family life, criminal
behavior and public displays of psychosis. And we have dealt with it in the only way
possible: by redefining deviancy down so as to explain away and make 'normal' what a more
civilized, ordered and healthy society long ago would have labeled--and long ago did
Christian Research Institute letter, December 6, 1993.
Today, the exalted status of economics in our public debate is being challenged in some
rather intriguing places. For example, Wall Street Journal editor Robert Bartley recently
observed, "If America is to decline, it will not be because of military overstretch.
Nor the trade balance, Japanese management secrets or even the federal deficit. If a
decline is underway, it's a moral one."
Former Education Secretary William Bennett sees evidence of such decline in research
identifying the most serious problems in public school classrooms. In 1940, running in the
halls, chewing gum, and talking in class headed the list of teacher's disciplinary
concerns; today, robbery, rape, alcohol, drugs, teen pregnancy, and suicide are most often
mentioned. Bennett argues, "If we turn the economy around, have full employment, live
in cities of alabaster and gold, and this is what our children are doing to each other,
then we still will have failed them."
Bennett believes one way to improve our national debate is to counterbalance, the
Commerce Department's index of leading economic indicators with a collection of some 19
"leading cultural indicators" including the divorce rate, the illegitimacy rate,
the violent crime rate, the teen suicide rate, and even hours devoted to television
viewing. While these cultural variables are only crude indicators of our nation's social
health, they do provide a more complete, and more accurate, empirical assessment of the
condition of American society than is available from economic variables alone. Using
economic variables -- even under-utilized variables like business productivity and hourly
compensation rates -- it is difficult to explain public opinion polls showing that a
majority of Americans believe the quality of life in America has declined over the last
three decades. To understand such perceptions, one has to consider that since 1960,
violent crime has risen 560 percent, illegitimate births have increased 400 percent, teen
suicides have risen 200 percent, divorce rates have quadrupled, average SAT scores have
dropped 80 points, and the proportion of children living in fatherless families has
In essence, then, Bennett's leading cultural indicators are to our national debate what
statistics like saves, fielding percentage, and earned run average are to baseball:
reminders that economic production (or run production) isn't everything. Indeed, a society
which manages to make great gains economically, but fails to progress in the cultural
areas outlined by Bennett is likely to be no more successful in the long run than the 1931
New York Yankees. That ball club, which featured sluggers like Babe Ruth and Lou
scored more runs (1,067) than any other team in major league history. But New York still
finished 13 and one-half games behind the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1931 American
League pennant race, in large part because the Yankees' lousy pitching more than offset
Family Policy, June, 1993, pp. 5-6.
Social critic Russell Kirk has defined decadence as the loss of an aim or object in life. "Men and women become decadent
when they forget or deny the objects of life, and so fritter away ther years in trifles or debauchery."
Charles Colson, Against the Night, p. 56.
Meanwhile, decadence and despair haunt many of America's youth. Perhaps fourteen-year-old Rod Matthews represents the
most horrible extreme. Uninterested in baseball or books, Rod found one thing that did stimulate him: death. His curiosity
was intensely aroused by a rental video, Faces of Death, a collage of film clips of people dying violently. He wanted to
see death happen in real life.
So one winter day Rod lured a young friend into the woods and hammered him to death with a baseball bat. At Matthews's
trial a child psychiatrist testified that the boy was not conventionally insane. He just "doesn't know right from
wrong...He is morally handicapped."
Charles Colson, Against the Night, pp. 21-22.
Edward Gibbon, author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, has attributed the fall of the Empire to:
1. The rapid increase of divorce; the undermining of the dignity and sanctity of the home, which is the basis of human society.
2. Higher and higher taxes and the spending of public monies for free bread and circuses for the populace.
3. The mad craze for pleasure; sports becoming every year more exciting and more brutal.
4. The building of gigantic armaments when the real enemy was within, the decadence of the people.
5. The decay of religion -- faith fading into mere form, losing touch with life and becoming impotent to warn and guide the
Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the